Ferrocement is one of the structural materials, widely used due to its advantage from its particular behavior such as mechanical properties, and impact strength. Ferrocement composites were widely used in the structures for strengthening of concrete. Thus ferrocement was an ideal material for repairing and strengthening of old or new structures. The flat ferrocement panels are reinforced with different numbers of wire mesh layers. The use of wire mesh layers has the ability to arrest the cracking in structure. The main aim of this work was to investigate the behavior of fibrocement reinforced with waste plastic fibers addition volume of 1% and 1.5% usage in ferrocement panels under impact loading. A total of 2 ferrocement panels with dimensions of 600mm x 600mm x 50mm (thickness) were constructed and tested, 3 panels tested under low velocity impact. This study also gives research gaps and also suggests directions for future research to establish ferrocement as a feasible material for strengthening axially loaded concrete members. Panels were casted with mortar of mix proportion (1:3) and water cement ratio as (0.4). Panels were tested under twopoint loading system after curing period of 28 days. Test result shows that panels with more number of layers exhibits greater flexural strength and less deflection as that compared with panels having less number of layers of mesh. For impact test, the results showed that the addition of waste plastic fibers increased the number of blows which were required to make the first crack and ultimate failure, with the increase of number of wire mesh layers.
To produce low cost concrete by replacing various properties of cement with hypo sludge and reduce disposal and pollution problems due to hypo sludge it is most essential to developed profitable building material from hypo sludge. To make good quality paper limited number of times recycled paper fibers can be used produces a large amount of solid waste. The cement has been replaced by waste paper sludge accordingly in the range of 0% (without using hypo sludge), 5%, 10%, and 15% by a weight of M30 mix. The waste (phosphogypsum, red mud and hypo sludge), from industry have many problems of disposal and produce health hazards. The hypo sludge is the by product of de-inking of paper and re-pulping of paper. The waste from paper industry (hypo sludge) contains less amount of calcium and maximum amount magnesium and silica. The property of silica and magnesium will accelerate the setting time of concrete. So the use of hypo sludge In. concrete will improve the setting time and also to reduce the environmental stress and imbalance. If the hypo sludge is partially used instead of cement in concrete the strength of concrete is decreased in small amount. For that, M-sand is partially replaced for the fine aggregate to compensate the strength reduction issue. M-sand is the granular particles hard rock after crushing. Keeping all this view, the aim ofinvestigation is the behavior of concrete while adding of waste with different proportion of hypo sludge in concrete by using test like compression strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength. Use of hypo sludge in concrete can save the paper industry disposal cost and produce a ‘greener’ concrete for construction. A better measure by aninnovative supplementary cementation construction material is formed through this research.
The aim of this project is to replace cement with plastic and ceramic waste in paver block and to reduce the cost of paver block when compared to that of conventional concrete paver block. Plastic is made from hydrocarbons found in different sources like oil, coal and some other materials. Plastic is of different types such as High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) etc. Hence, these Waste Plastics is to be effectively utilized in making paver blocks. Low Density Polyethylene are clean added with the fine aggregate and coarse aggregate at various percentage to obtain high strength that possess thermal and Sound insulation properties to handle pollution and overall cost of construction. In this project, plastic waste is melted and plastic waste is used in different ratio with fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. The water absorption capacity of plastic paver block is less. The results show that more strength compared to normal paver blocks. In recent constructions, consumption of ceramic materials is increasing day by day in the form of tiles, sanitary fittings and electrical insulations etc. But a large quantity of ceramic waste material is changes into wastage during processing, transportation and fixation due to its brittle nature. In this study, the Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) has been replaced by crushed ceramic tile by various percentages such as 10%, 20% and 30%. Paver blocks were casted, tested and compared with conventional blocks by finding their compressive and flexural strength through experimental investigation. The test was carried out to evaluate hardened properties of paver block. This project proves that the waste produced in plastics and tile industry can be used as partial replacement of cement in paver block.
The conventional concrete has lost its usage in modern days as it does not serve the present needs. To improve the workability, durability and the ultimate strength of the concrete, HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (HPC) with super plasticizers are used. A problem which demands the use of HPC is the reduction in the CO2 level for a green environment. There are various studies and research that emerging related to the HPC. Water cement ratio is kept constant as 0.3 .silica fume used as a replacement of cement about 10% by weight and also super plasticizer are added as per requirement for achieving desired workability of concrete. The steel fiber with aspect ratio of 60 was used in the experiments and the volume fraction of steel fibers were 1%, 1.5% and 2%. The use of silica fume increased both the mechanical strength and the modulus of elasticity of concrete. On the other hand, the addition of steel fiber into concrete improves toughness of high strength concrete significantly. Super plasticizers are also known as high range water reducers or chemical admixtures. In order to improve the workability of high performance concrete, super plasticizer in the form of sulphonated napthalene formaldehyde complies with IS 9103:1999 and ASTM C494 type F as a high range water reducing admixture (CONPLAST 430) was used. This had 40% active solids in solution. This is added to avoid formation of flakes, due to less quantity of water. Use of super plasticizer becomes essential for designing mix to achieve HPC and also for the preparation of fiber reinforced concrete to increase workability.
Sea water intrusion is the major drawback in all over India among coastal regions. This study reveals the state of seawater intrusion in neyveli located in cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, India. The selected area for investigation of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifer was about 30km radius from the center of Neyveli mine1 in cuddalore district The study area lies in the coastline of less surface water resources. The level of ground water development in this region is 89% which is noted in the semi-critical stage. From the study area 40 groundwater samples have been collected and various physio-chemical parameters were analyzed. Sea water mixing index has been determined by using the Ca, Mg, Cl, So4. Spatial variation maps showed the clear examination in the concentration of water quality parameters in some areas seems to be contaminated with sea water intrusion. The control measures are artificial recharge, maintenance of freshwater ridges, forming subsurface barriers.
Pregnancy is one of the most important occurrence in the life of a women. Pregnancy related stress are among the leading causes of death and disability for women aged between 21-49 years. These deaths are mostly preventable with good mental care. Therefore, reBirth is designed for “Maternal Health Support” for women. The product gives a package that contains the supplies need to be accommodated to have a healthy pregnancy. These supplies will be purely based on their likes and it includes foods to be inhabited, exercise to be practiced and dresses to be worn. reBirth prompts a questionnaire to identify the likes and dislikes of the women. Based on this questionnaire the supplies is decided and provided for them as a package which they could select and buy it.
The BLDC motor is reliable and is widely used in autonomous rover for the scientific exploration in interplanetary mission. The scope of the project is to design and develop a BLDC Motor controller using FPGA. The advantage of using FPGA is fast prototyping and turnaround time when compared to the existing design using microcontroller/ digital signal processors. The commutation logic, PWM and speed processing/ control is done in FPGA and interfaced with BLDC motor.
The proposed system tracks the sun’s movement and tries to maintain the solar panel perpendicular to sun rays, ensuring that the maximum amount of sunlight is incident on the panel. This is better than the fixed solar panel, where the panel is fixed and can’t track the transition of the sun from east to west, hence generating optimum energy. This proposed system solves the problem by arranging for the solar panel to track the sun. The idea in which this paper is unique is that with the solar tracker, the system also includes an arduino controlled automated solar panel cleaning system.
Oil Skimmer Robot is a device which can be used for ocean purification by removing the oil from water surface. The system uses a photovoltaic powered conveyor belt to propel itself and collect oil. The flexible conveyor belt softly rolls over the ocean’s surface, absorbing oil while deflecting water because of its hydrophobic properties. The photovoltaic cells generate enough electricity to keep the fleet moving for several weeks and provide the energy to propel the vehicles forward. As the head moves through the water the conveyor belt constantly rotates and sucks up pollution. The belt is then compressed to remove the oil. As the clean part of the belt comes out of the head it immediately begins absorbing oil, making the collection process seamless and efficient. This process is more streamlined than current ocean-skimming technologies because the robots can operate autonomously and don’t need to return to the shore for constant maintenance. This robot is controlled by a wireless fidelity module which enables it to be operated remotely when in need of intervention of human reasoning and decision. This robot can also be utilized for collection of toxic blue green algae form the surface of water.
Transportation of medicine at the right time is an important element in provision of quality health care service. In rural communities, the availability of reliable transportation is the only factor that affects health outside the four walls of the hospital. Due to heavy traffic, one can often see the ambulances stuck for long durations thus causing danger to patient's life. The use of Autonomous Vehicles can play a great role in transportation of medicines. Drones can access risky or remote places easily thus providing great potential in faster delivery of medical aids .Certain medicines (like antidote for snake venom) which are available only in major hospitals can be carried by drone to the health centers in rural areas. A water resistant drone, fully powered by solar energy and obstacle detection capability will be a great breakthrough in the field of medical science.
Our goal is to enhance quality education to primary classes for third, fourth and fifth standard. Because people in rural areas won’t send their kids to school because of poverty. If some parents send their kids to school they were not provided with proper education. We are going to provide them with an educational website which will be very useful for kids to involve them in the learning process to improve their career.
Piston is made of alloys is an essential part in internal combustion engine. High temperature produced in engine may contribute to high thermal stresses. Without appropriate heat transfer mechanism, the piston crown would operate ineffectively. In order to minimize wear and thermal stresses we are using the ceramic coating in the piston. The use of coatings on materials is now widespread in global manufacturing for reducing maintenance cost and improving efficiency of the component.
The main objective of the project is to Development of modern mechanization and automation of packaging technology with each passing day, the quantitative packaging of various items should be accurate and this has a direct impact on the survival and economic benefits. Most manufacturers have adopted a highly automated production line. They are simply type Automation based, is the introduction of simple pneumatic, mechanical and electrical devices into the existing production machinery, with a view to improving their productivity. This would also enable the operation of this equipment by even semi-skilled and unskilled labor, with a little training. This will involve the use of standardized parts and devices to mechanize or automate machines, processes and systems.
Generally, Engines achieve maximum efficiency when operated at the knock limit.Laboratory research has indicated it is harmless torun an engine within this range. Experience with knock control engines in passenger cars has shown erosion damage on pistons. Typical examples of knock erosion damage and ways of influencing severity of damage are discussed. Ceramic coating has been developed as an effective and reliable technique to protect pistons from combustion knock erosion. Additional benefits of thermal insulation coated pistons include: Reduced piston deposits increased wear resistance in the top ring groove increased cylinder head temperatures Engine text results and an analysis of engine efficiency increase due to zirconium piston coatings is also presented. Here the model was created by Pro-E software and further is to be analyzed in ANSYS. Then conduct the experimental testing for find out the emissions variation and carbon deposits on piston head.
This paper presents a modern intelligent access for surveillance at private and boundary areas. Using multifunctional robot based on current 4G technology used in defense and military applications. This robotic vehicle has ability to substitute the soldier at border areas to provide surveillance. The robotic vehicle works both as autonomous and manually controlled vehicle using as communication medium. This multisensory robot used to detect human, bombs at remote and war field areas. Conventionally, wireless security robot and its working on limited frequency range and limited manual control. These limitations are surrounded by using 4G technology which has communication limitless range. An autonomous operation is controlled by PIR sensor. Manual operation is controlled by DTMF decoder, RF transmitter and receiver and cell phones used as video camera by initializing 4G video call and change the path of robot according to real time information of surrounding. This paper also illustrates the experimental results of automatic and manual mode. This robotic vehicle is designed for recognition as well as surveillance under certain circumstances.
Heat exchanger play a vital a role in engineering implementations across various domains of engineering. The advent of nanofluids have enabled and facilitated better modes of heat transfer in heat exchangers. A survey is done to know the extent of the knowledge that is reflected on the usage of statistical tools on nanofluids based heat exchangers. It can be concluded that statistical tools can be proposed to overcome the complexities encountered by using analytical experimental design to study effect of nanofluids on heat exchangers.
Disruptive technologies have revolutionized the world to a new horizon thus eliminating the conventional technologies in the process. The evolution of technology followed by technological disruption is studied. An analysis is done to show the list of disruptive technologies in Mechanical Sciences in the recent years by using the Hype Cycle. The Hype Cycle that is developed by the American research and advisory firm GartnerTM is exploited to know the projection of technological disruption (in Mechanical Sciences )for long term future.
The present paper deals with the design construction and working of a pedal which is used as both brake and accelerator. The automotive vehicle has become one of modern Society's deadliest killers, in addition to injuring thousands of lives every year. This combined accelerator and brake in one pedal is a technique that can be used for reducing automotive accidents. The main objective of this innovation is to eliminate the operator’s risk of pressing the wrong pedal at the time of emergency as well as reduction in the driver’s reaction time to switch from accelerator to brake or vice versa. The mechanism of this total assembly is so simple. The present time automobiles are equipped with independent pedal controls for operating the accelerator and brake, these pedals being operated by right foot and since the two functions are opposed and incompatible it is necessary to leave one pedal free in order to operate the other. It can therefore be supposed that some drivers have difficulty in removing their foot from the accelerator pedal and transferring it to the brake pedal quickly in emergency situations. To solve this problem, a new brake pedal and accelerator system is designed. Design of this total assembly can be made using software like Catia. Basic ideology is push action of the pedal is used or apply brakes whenever needed and press action as that of acceleration.
Plain concrete possesses very low tensile strength, limited ductility and little resistance to cracking. Internal micro cracks are inherently present in concrete and its poor tensile strength is due to propagation of such micro cracks. Fibers when added in certain percentage in the concrete improve the strain properties well as crack resistance, ductility, as flexure strength and toughness. Mainly the studies and research in fiber reinforced concrete has been devoted to steel fibers. In recent times, glass fibers have also become available, which are free from corrosion problem associated with steel fibers. The present paper outlines the experimental investigation conducts on the use of glass fibers with structural concrete. GFRC change depending on the quality of the materials and the accuracy of the production methods. GFRC can be used wherever a light, strong, fire resistant, weather resistant, attractive, impermeable materials is needed. In recent years, the effect of glass fibers in hybrid mixtures has been investigated for high-performance concrete, an emerging technology termed, which has become popular in the construction industry.The result of parameter is compared to those of standard M30 grade concrete.In this project,trial test for concrete with glass fiber and without glass fiber is conducted to indicate the differences in compressive strength , flexural strength and split tensile strength by using specimen of various sizes. Glass fiber has the high tensile strength and fire resistant properties thus reducing the loss of damage during fire accidents. In this study , tests have done for the concrete with glass fiber of 5%,10% and 15% of cement by adding as an admixture.
This paper is intended to create an automatic alert system when the person losses abrupt loss of blood.As per WHO global report in 2018 alone India accounts for almost 11% road accidents related deaths which claimed over 1.5lakhs lives (ref. the economic times) .The benefit of employing the techniques in this proposed paper is to decrease unnoticed human death due to blood loss caused by accidents, trauma, rape etc.
Now a day, fire accidents are very common and sometimes it becomes very difficult for firemen to save people. It is not possible to save a person from the high-rise building by firemen. But it can do by robot. From this project we explain the implementation and designing of fire fighting flying robot using radio frequency, and also introducing the drone which may lift up the robot from the ground into the fire exiting area in the high-rise building. These types of robots can be used for exiting the fire in various industries and places such as power plants, chemical industries, Gas stations, petroleum supply hubs and high-rise building. According to the National Crime Records Bureau Data indicates that a total of 113961 people lost their lives due to Fire Accidents from the 2010 to 2014. This is a typical of 62 deaths per day. Maharashtra alone accounted for 24293 deaths or 21.3% of all the deaths due to fire accidents, in this robot contain a nozzle to spray the water on the fire targeted area. We attach another nozzle in drone to spray the sodium bicarbonate in the house and forest area and also potassium bicarbonate in the industrial area. This type of robot structure was made up of aluminum, because the specific heat capacity of aluminum alloys (816/kg K to 1050 /kg K, or 0.195 Btu/lb F to 0.258 Btu/lb F), which is approximately twice that of steel (377/kg K to 502 /kg K, or 0.090 Btu/lb F to 0.120 Btu/lb F). Thermal camera is used to find the people in fired area, it can seen by mini laptop or monitor in the remote controlled area. It also contains wiper motor for movement of fore and rearward the robot. Stepper motors for the movement of nozzle in up and down are used. In this project execution has three main elements as hardware design and fabrication, circuit designing and programming.