In recent years fine aggregate plays a main role in the preparation of both concrete and mortar in construction work. Generally, we are widely using quarry sand (Manufactured sand) has as an alternative for natural sand. In this project we used the crushed pebble sand which is produced by crushing the pebbles is one of the alternative materials. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of using crushed pebbles as fine aggregate fully with different grades of concrete composite. The suitability of crushed pebbles waste as a fine aggregate for concrete has been assessed by comparing its basic properties with that of conventional concrete. Basic mix was chosen for natural sand to achieve M25 grade concrete. The equivalent mixes were obtained by replacing natural sand by crushed pebbles partially and fully. The test results indicate the crushed pebbles waste cannot be used effectively to fully replace natural sand in concrete. In the experimental study of strength characteristics of concrete using crushed pebbles as fine aggregate it is found that there is no increase in compressive strength, flexural strength and tensile strength of concrete when compared with natural sand.
The trailer is a large load carrying device installed at the back of a tractor. It is used for carrying heavy loads in agricultural purposes and also for carrying goods. It is also used for towing a vehicle. Whenever brakes are applied to the trailer vehicle, it is applied only to the vehicle at the front. The trailer stops only when the vehicle stops. This causes the inertia force of the trailer to act on the vehicle. This leads to severe accidents in case of sudden or panic braking. It causes damage not only to the vehicles, but also it leads to death in case of severe accidents. Our project aims to reduce this incident in the case of trailers by installing braking system separately for the trailers. A hydraulically actuated disc brake system is used in this project because of its advantages over the other system. This system causes the application of brakes in the trailer wheels when the brake is applied at the front. The brake pedal is modified for this system. The master cylinder is attached with the pedal and the output is given to the calipers at the trailer wheels. In between a check valve is connected with the brake hoses which allows for the easy engagement and disengagement of the trailer with the brakes. The developed tractor-trailer braking aids in reduction in the stopping distance, decreases the effort required by the driver, even wear and tear of the brake pad, improvement in stability and reduces the number of accidents of the vehicle. Jack knifing i.e., formation of acute angles, is caused to the vehicle when sudden braking is applied to the vehicle moving on slippery roads. A jack knife crash has the potential to cause very serious injuries and even it is a fatal one for many people. Jack knifing of the vehicle is prevented when the vehicle towing a trailer is about to skid when the trailer braking is adopted. It means that the vehicle and the trailer are in the form of an acute angle. This trailer braking is very much essential to control such jack knifing when the vehicle skids. In conclusion, the developed trailer braking system improves the safety of the tractor vehicle during operation with trailer.
Estimation techniques play a vital role in all genres of Engineering and a good estimation model is needed in order to predict and analyze flow rates of the new technological advances in the market. A Thorough study is done on the conventional estimation models and a new estimation technique is proposed to overcome the difficulties faced by the conventional studies. The following estimation technique uses both numerical and analytical approach to predict the corresponding work output from an industry. The technique uses the mathematical Taylor Series to explore and build the relation of how the work output will vary in the near future. It is also ensured that a minimal and trivial input is required for the estimation and formulation of the work output relation.
The improvement in the field of innovation has diminished the involvement of the manual work that is various new devices and strategies are implemented over the conventional methods. Increase in the population is proportional to large scale cultivation; many methods were emerged for large scale cultivation. Reduction in the accessibility of works has encouraged the efficient methods for managing the cultivation lands. To overcome such circumstance, our project aims for supervising soil parameter like moisture level, pH and surrounding temperature. The mentioned parameters are crucial factor for the proper growth of plant. The continuous monitoring can be done by the land owner which helps them to understand the present condition of the soil parameters and can increase the fertility of soil.
Remotely operated unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) are remote control underwater robots driven by an individual on the surface. These robots are tethered by a series of that send signals between the operator and the (ROV)or(UUV).It is developed for various application from civil unit military requirement one of the most important (UUV) mission is surveillance including mapping of marine resources and monitoring of the sea environment. The study of comprises the design of special unmanned underwater vehicle underwater surveillance becomes more crucial for the thousand of island. This UUV that can be functioned as a surveillance agent .the detail idea, design background were observed in the study.
Indian horticulture is Different running from Ruined ranch towns to Created ranches using present day rural advances. Office horticulture territory in China is growing and is driving the world. In any case, its biological community control innovation is as yet youthful, with low dimension of insight. Advancing Use of present day data innovation in agribusiness will take care of a progression of issues looking by ranchers. Absence of correct data and correspondence prompts the misfortune underway. Our paper is intended to defeat these issues. This framework gives a clever checking stage structure and framework structure for office horticulture biological system dependent on IOT. This will be an impetus for the change from customary cultivating to present day cultivating. This additionally gives chance To making new innovation and administration improvement in IOT (web of things) cultivating application. The Internet of Things makes everything associated. More than a long time since freedom, India has gained colossal ground towards nourishment profitability. The Indian populace has tripled, yet nourishment grain generation more than quadrupled, there has in this manner been a considerable increment in accessible sustenance grain per capita. Current agribusiness rehearses have an extraordinary guarantee for the financial improvement of a country. So we have gotten an imaginative undertaking for the welfare of agriculturists and furthermore for the ranches. There are no day or night limitations. This is useful whenever. Keywords: IoT, Smart Agriculture, Humidity, Temperature, Soil Moisture, Arduino.
Excessive release of heavy metals into environment due to industrialization and urbanization has posed a great problem to the world. A little exposure of these metal ions even at low concentration can give bad effect to human body and environment itself. Heavy metal ions do not degrade, so the removal of heavy metals from water is to be considered seriously. Adsorption technique is adopted for decontamination of metal ions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of rice husks as adsorbent for the removal of lead ions. Rice husk is preferred to any other materials because of its abundant availability in India and also its low cost. The lead ions removal from aqueous solution was studied using batch method. The adsorption process of metal ions from waste water is influenced by various physical and chemical parameters like pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage etc. Two types of adsorbents are used in this study, one is prepared by grounding the rice husk into small size and another one is obtained by burning the clean rice husk in muffle furnace and treating it with hydrochloric acid. The waste water is prepared synthetically in the laboratory and treated against two adsorbents. Characterization of both the samples was done by using FTIR. Among process parameters, pH has a significant role in controlling the adsorption of lead ions. It was found that the adsorption capacity of grounded rice husk increases with increasing pH of the solution. Maximum adsorption occurs at a pH between 4 and 6, adsorption capacity decreases at pH 7. Removal efficiency of grounded and carbonized rice husks(GRH &CRH)also increases with increase in adsorbent dosage and contact time. While comparing the removal efficiency of both grounded and carbonized rice husks, the former one has more efficiency. Hence it can be concluded that, grounded rice husk can be used as an efficient adsorbent. The implementation of this study will provide a better adsorbent for waste water treatment.
Cancer is a disease caused by some physical, chemical or biological factors that leads to unregulated proliferation of cells resulting in the formation of malignant lesions. Although there are a number of treatment methods available against cancer, majority of them have side-effects. The use of natural remedies for developing a chemo-therapeutic drug that is minimally immunosuppressive but selectively kills the cancerous cells is the major objective of the research. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) has been proven to be a natural remedy against cancer due to the cyanogenic compound linamarin present in it. The isolation of cassava linamarin by acid hydrolysis followed by adsorption on activated carbon can produce highly purified end- product that can be used as an anti-cancer agent. The acid hydrolysis was carried out using 0.1M H2SO4 and the crude cassava extract (CCE) obtained was analyzed for functional groups using FTIR spectroscopy. The hydrolyzing solution was prepared using 0.1M acetate buffer and the enzyme obtained was purified using membrane filtration (0.45μm). For quantification of the linamarin present in CCE, UV-Vis spectroscopy was conducted to obtain the calibration curve (absorbance versus concentration curve) from which the concentration of linamarin present in the sample measured in hydrogen cyanide equivalent terms was found to be 0.97μg for 0.1ml of CCE used that was hydrolyzed using 11ml of hydrolyzing solution containing linamarase. The UV-Vis spectroscopic studies revealed that the optimum time required for the purification of linamarin using activated carbon adsorption was 35 minutes. Thus, an approach for the isolation and purification of linamarin by combining acid hydrolysis and activated carbon adsorption technique was proposed.
Visible light correspondence (VLC) is transforming into an elective choice for front-line remote advancement by offering ease, unregulated transmission limit,and widespread systems support. This advancement is envisioned to be used as a piece of a broad assortment of usages both indoors and outdoors. Perceptible Light Communication (VLC) uses light emanating diodes (LEDs), for the twofold piece of lighting up and data transmission. With this driving edge development, data including video and sound, web development et cetera can be transmitted at high speeds using LED light. Using LEDs is driving this advancement as Visible Light Communication (VLC).
The operation and control of the power systems are greatly affected by the increased penetration of wind farms in the electric grid. Therefore, wind farms are expected to stay connected even during short term faults. Whenever there is a fault in the grid, the voltage at the point of common coupling gets disturbed. As a result, the grid connected Wind Electric Generators (WEG) get disconnected from the grid causing a sudden loss of generation in the power system. If the fault isn’t cleared within a short duration, the power system will face a huge generation load mismatch which may even lead to blackouts. Therefore, the wind energy conversion system needs to satisfy the most important grid code requirement known as the Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT) to prevent unintentional islanding. In this work, Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is used to provide the LVRT capability. STATCOM is synchronized with the grid using Synchronously Rotating Reference Frame Phase Locked Loop (SRF-PLL) based grid synchronization algorithm. In order to demonstrate the LVRT capability, simulations have been performed in MATLAB/Simulink environment under normal and faulty conditions with and without STATCOM. The resiliency of SRF-PLL is also highlighted through MATLAB simulation under different grid conditions.
This Paper presents the experimental results of progressing research project to produce the geopolymerized concrete using fly ash and GGBS as binder. The M30 grade of concrete is prepared with the alkaline solutions such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) of 14M is used for polymerization process. The main intention of this project is to reduce the self weight of the concrete demonstrating by structural light weight aggregate. Preparatory tests on pumice stone is carried out to realize the property of the material. The coarse aggregate is replaced by pumice with an increment of 30%, 50%, 70%, 90%, and 100%. The specimen of cubes size 100mm x100mm x 100mm and cylinders size of 100mm x200mm are casted. Oven curing method is adopted with an ideal temperature of 700C and the tests were carried out after 3 days. The compressive strength and the density decrease with the increase of pumice. Compressive strength, split tensile strength, water absorption test and UPV test results are reported in this paper.
In this paper, an experiment was performed to study the characteristics of light weight geopolymer mortar using Expanded Perlite Aggregate (EPA).In this study the fine aggregate is replaced by EPA with various percentage such as 10%,20%,30%,40%,50%, and 100%. This paper mainly focused on parameters such as density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength, water absorption, sorptivity of Light Weight Geopolymer Mortar (LWGM) . LWGM density varies from 1793.75 to 1112.5 kg/m3 with replacement of EPA as a fine aggregate. It reduces the density of mortar, dead load of the wall .Since fly ash is used as ful replacement of cement it reduces the CO2 emission hence it is eco friendly. This geopolymer mortar is used to manufacture the light weight brick, and also good plaster for wall. It is also good insulator against fire, thermal, and sound. The compressive strength was decreased when increasing the EPA.The test results indicated that increasing the EPA as fine aggregate the thermal resistance of LWGM was increased,it improves thermal insulation.The compressive strength and thermal conductivity varies from49MPa to 22MPa and 0.136W/mK to 0.031W/mK.