The main objective of this paper was focused to minimize the hazards and injuries in sugar industry. The literature reviews were carried out and detailed such as safety in industries handling and grain products, safety instrumented system approach, Instrumentation & control sensors in nuclear power plants, PLC programs in oil and gas industry, Automation and Robotics in the food industry. This paper was proposed on the sugarcane levelling operation. The received sugarcane will be passed on to the shredder section, milling section and also other sections. Due to improper sugarcane levelling, there will be stuck in the operation section. Due to this problem, continuous process leads to heavy load and result in explosion hazard. To avoid this problem, proper sugarcane levelling process was carried out. For this process, this paper could be proposed by using bin levelling rotary sensors to the instrumentation for safety purpose in sugar industry.
The objective of this paper is to present the theoretical and simulation investigation on the effect of curved and V-shaped slots on resonance frequency, return loss and band width of probe-fed microstrip patch antenna. The radiating Patch is designed with different shape of slots. The dimension and special effect of slots were studied and reported here. Slot loading antennas perform better over the frequency range of 5.71 to 5.82 GHz which is an ISM band. They can provide relatively very good radiation efficiency and VSWR<2.
The author present here the analysis to estimate the hourly solar global radiation for the city Ramgarh, Jharkhand (India) having latitude of 23.380N, longitude 85.330E and elevation of 629m above the mean sea level. Measured hourly global solar radiation data were compared with the hourly global solar radiation data calculated by using Liu & Jordan , Colleres-Pereira  and Gopinathan  models which also correlate hourly values and daily totals of the global radiation. The suitable models for each type of weather condition were evaluated for the months of January and July. To validate the results the error is calculated for all climate conditions.
Aluminium oxide as reinforcement in Aluminium 2024 alloy is a very promising material in the field of aerospace and automobiles because of its high strength to weight ratio and anti-corrosion properties. The stir casting method used for manufacturing the MMC is well suited for most of the components but has to be machined for accuracy and surface finish. Therefore the machining parameters such as cutting speed, depth of cut and feed etc., play an important role as a deciding factor for surface finish, accuracy and cutting force generated. The 10% in weight Al2O3 is reinforced in aluminum 2024 alloy and the MMC were manufactures using stir casting method and the resulting MMC were investigated for their metallographic characteristics by optical microscope. The experiment was designed to manufacture and optimize the cutting parameters of the manufactured MMC by using Taguchi method by using Minitab 14 software. The factors selected was cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut and response to be optimized were cutting speed and surface finish. The detailed experimentation was carried out by turning the cast MMC by measuring the cutting force using lathe tool dynamometer as per Taguchi L9 orthogonal array and cutting forces for 4 trials and the average were tabulated. The surface roughness of the turned MMC’s was examined and recorded using Talysurfmeter and average were tabulated. The average reading were analyzed in Minitab 14 for s/n ratio (lower the better) and the main factor which contributed for the change in response was found to be the cutting speed and optimum machining parameters for both surface finish and the cutting forces were analyzed and tabulated. Regression Analysis were done to obtain the mathematical model of the response in terms of factors and the proportion in the variation in the response was found for the said conditions as per Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array
The robotics area has grown rapidly from generations. An artificial intelligence based device works as a self-controlled or user controlled device whose function is to do the work, which is not possible by a human. For border security, proper inspection on a timely basis and continuous check, surveillance are important. It is also important that it works without any user interface and can be controlled from remote. Developing a distant sensing and remote monitoring system can implement the surveillance and inspection. The physical things like metals, obstacles and environmental conditions like temperature can be monitored through wireless sensory network. In this work an autonomous intelligent robot guided by an IoT application that permits it to examine the affected area, is proposed. It sends the signals to user in case of any emergency. The proposed system consists of embedded system, devices for monitoring physical environment, otherwise known as sensor system and the programming of the robot, that is, intelligent programming.
The effect of heat transfer on the performance parabolic collector have been studied. The effect studied by using nano-fluid and twisted tape and twisted tape inserts. Nano-fluid and twisted tape inserts based parabolic collectors are commonly used in the area as such as industries, heating and cooling for buildings, thermal power plants, solar cooker, automobiles. The author provides enhancement and performance prediction in heat transfer in the absorber tube of concentrator using nano-fluid and twisted tape inserts. The simulated results obtained here by simulation.
Electronic systems are required to be operated at low temperature under its intended limit. Increase in usage of such system extensively needs a mean to control the temperature under its operating range. The average operating temperature for such electronics device is around 100 °C which needs to be managed for better performance characteristics. Heat management through a tubular structure heat pipe with Phase change material (PCM) filled in it and sealed for leak-proof design is the main focus. The PCM based heat pipes arrangement is emerging model that could remove heat from electronic devices. But the PCM has a low thermal conductivity which is usually undesired, so there is an emergence of a new technology called as composite phase change material and nano-enhanced phase change material. This article reviews meticulously different studies performed with PCM incorporated heat pipe technique for electronics cooling.
The demand for high-performance systems that deliver faster solutions is growing at a tremendous pace. Generally, the commercial and domestic electronic devices are needed to operate from 70 ℃ and above based on the operating load. Such devices release huge amounts of heat and this heat for the most part is concentrated at the chip. The developed heat, if not conducted properly, will deteriorate the chip performance and the system performance too. Thus thermal management systems with heat sinks incorporating PCM (Phase Change Material) come into the picture and are emerging as one of the effective techniques to remove the heat. However, the low thermal conductivity of the PCM is a hindrance to the development. Various investigators have published their works on the TCEs (Thermal Conductivity Enhancers) and some have also published review papers on the PCM materials used along with TCEs. At present internal fins, metallic foams and nano particles are mixed with PCM to enhance the performance of heat sinks. It has been found that metallic foams perform better among the three. This article reviews various papers on metal based TCEs that have been incorporated with PCM.