Wire-cut electrical discharge machining is one of the most widely using un conventional machining processes for machining hard materials like titanium, stainless steel, tool steels. This project reviews the effect of various process parameters such as pulse on time, pulse of time, wire feed on different process response parameters such as surface roughness and kerf width. The design experiment is used to design the WEDM experiments .The various tools of D.O.E. are used to analyze the final results of the experiments with the help of graphs. The analyze is being done with the help of Minitab-17 software. The results of the experiments are the optimum values of SR (Surface roughness), KW (Kerf width).
Cleaning and washing glass walls of the sky scrapers is too risky. It may lead to accidents and furthermore disasters. For security and easiness of cleaning the glass walls The overall control will be given by the user through an android application. Bluetooth model is used as communication device here.
In this paper, Taguchi method has been used to identify the optimum condition of input parameters in the milling process .In the present study optimization of surface roughness and material removal rete (MRR) using Taguchi method is doing for end milling operation. Milling experiment has been performed on Aluminium LM25 material, according to Taguchi orthogonal array [L9] for the different combination of input parameters which are spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut (DOC) .Signal to noise ratio is applied to measure the performance characteristics deviating from the actual value .Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) is used to identify the variables affecting the MRR, surface roughness, machining time, temperature.
Optimization means finding the optimum input values for a specific constraint in any manufacturing process. It is a way to improve a system or a process to work at optimum conditions, reduce waste and increase productivity. Optimization is currently applied in various manufacturing processes such as machining, welding, alloy preparation, etc. This is the collective information about optimization in welding using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) by various experiments. Its aim is to give complete outline of various techniques, methods, procedure to optimize the welding parameters.
The normal conventional concrete is not allows the rain water directly into the ground. So we provide an additional drainage system to drain the rain water. The additional drainage system we provided was increasing the construction cost. So it is not economical. To solve this problem using recent innovation materials. So we replace normal conventional concrete in to recon pavement. It is a special type of concrete with a high porosity used for concrete flatwork applications that allows water from precipitation and other sources to pass directly through, thereby reducing the runoff from a site and allowing groundwater recharge.
In India, bricks are usually made up of clay, and are generally produced in traditional, unorganized small scale industries. Brick making consumes larger amount of clay which leads to top soil removal and land degradation. To avoid all this environmental threats an attempt was made to study the behavior of bricks manufactured using, waste materials from sugarcane industrial waste. Recycling of such waste as raw material alternatives may contribute in the exhaustion of the natural resources and reduction in waste disposal costs. In this project we choose sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) and press mud in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) stabilized bricks. The brick was manufactured of size 25cm x 12cm x 6.5cm. The blocks were named as 4, 6 and 8 then it is added with SBA and press mud by weight of dry soil, then the bricks followed by curing for period of 28 days. The test like compressive strength, water absorption test, shape and size test in accordance with Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) specifications by also considering the cost.
Water is the most important element to support life. Water scarcity is the major problem faced by many countries in recent days. Even though two-third of the world is covered by water, fresh water available to fulfill the day-to-day needs remains scarce. During the last century global human population increased above 6.3 billion. This drastic increase in human population leads to the severe shortage of water supply which in turn greatly affects the food production. In addition, Due to the increased use of ground water, ground water sources are depleting which affects the nature drastically. The death rate due to water scarcity increases nowadays. There is an importance to find the alternative fresh water sources immediately. Atmosphericair usually contains more number of gases like nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, water vapors and 1% to 4% of water molecules. The goal of our project is to create a portable device which serves as a suitable method to obtain the fresh water. This device extracts the water molecules present in the air and condensing them to produce the drinking water.
India is the largest democratic country where voting and election are fundamental to any consensus based society. This paper discussed in detail the design of Iris recognition based electronic voting machine using IoT. It based on the Aadhar Identification of the individual person. During the election time theIris of the voter is scanned by using MATLAB.These are then compared with the available record in the database and display the voter Aadhar number, name and photo.Set for location and candidate name.Then the voter gets the one-time password(OTP) to their mobile through the GSM.Then voter enter that one-time password is input to the matrix keyboard and allow for vote.TheIP web camera also fixed in the polling station, which is monitor by control room through the Internet.
The current study deals with the optimization of mechanical properties of aluminum alloy (Al6061) metal matrix composites reinforced with merged zirconia bonded abrasive particles which were fabricated by sand casting method. The sample specimens were fabricated by varying the percentage of weight fraction of reinforced particles as 5, 10, 15 and the remaining aluminum alloy respectively. The mechanical properties were analyzed. The evaluation of mechanical properties indicates variations in hardness, MRR and surface roughness with respect to composite combinations. From the experimental studies, the optimum weight percentage of the matrix and reinforcement on the basis of mechanical properties was found to be 90 and 10 respectively.
The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters of aluminium alloy (Al6061) – boron carbide (B4C) composites fabricated by stir casting. Nowadays, aluminium alloy is used as structural material in several applications due to its high formability, high strength to weight ratio. But it has low tensile strength, impact strength, hardness and corrosion resistance. So to increase the above mentioned properties, boron carbide is added to the aluminium alloy. The sample specimens of four were made by varying the percentage of reinforcements with respect to aluminium alloy alone with various stirring time. The evaluation of mechanical properties indicates the variations in tensile strength, hardness and impact energy for different composite combinations. The tensile strength and hardness was found to increase with the increase in the particle size and also with the increase in weight % of the reinforcement
The data mining is the technique which can extract useful information from the rough data. The clustering is the approach which can group similar and dissimilar type of data. The prediction analysis is the technique which can predict new values from the existing techniques. The prediction analysis contains two phases, in the first phase k-mean clustering is applied which can cluster similar and dissimilar type of data. In the second phase, the SVM classifier is applied which can classify similar and dissimilar type of data.
In the present era, air and noise pollution is the growing hazardous issue. It is necessary to monitor air quality and keep it under control for a better future and healthy living for all. We propose a system an air quality as well as sound pollution monitoring in a particular area and to identify the particular polluting vehicle. The developing system is placed in the vehicle. The sensor is interacting with vehicle muffler to sense presence of harmful gases/compounds and constantly transmit this data to Arduino. This data are transmitting to the owner of the vehicle over the internet. The system also monitors the polluted areas and the sensed data are transmitted to the authorities over IoT. The vehicle which are reach the traffic signals and honking areas it automatically sends the arduino collected data to the raspberry pi over Zigbee. The raspberry pi sends the data, vehicle number, engine number, owner address to the corresponding authorities to monitor pollution in different vehicles, areas and take action against it. Also authorities can keep a watch on the noise and air pollution near schools, Hospitals and no honking areas.
The world is confronted with the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The indiscriminate extraction and consumption of fossil fuels have led to a reduction in petroleum reserves. Petroleum based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain region of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing a foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum oil. Hence it is necessary to look for alternative fuels, which can be produced from materials available within the country.
This paper presents the analysis of some aspects of gain linearization of a negative temperature co-efficient (NTC) thermistor using the mathematical tool based on partial differentiation and Taylor's series expansion. A suitable hardware scheme for the proposed gain linearization of the selected thermistor is also presented in this paper. Though the proposed analysis gives a closed form formulation for the gain linearization, to have a better feeling on the results involving parameters variations, the results were obtained by using suitable computer program. These simulation results were compared with the experimental results and found to agree to a reasonable extent.
In this research work the production of a biodiesel from ceiba pentandra seed oil by methanol induced transesterification using an alkaline catalyst (KOH) has been examined. The effect of the operating variables such as agitation speed, reaction time, temperature, catalyst concentration and alcohol amount were determined experimentally and found to be 550 rpm agitation rate, 60 min reaction time, 60o C reaction temperature, 14grams of catalysts concentration and 500ml of methanol for 2.5 liters of oil. The yield of biodiesel from the ceiba pentandra methyl ester (CPME) under the optimized conditions is found to be 92%. The properties of biodiesel are measured as per ASTM standards and compared with the base diesel.
The unreachability problem (i.e., message is not received by the receiver) that exists in the greedy routing algorithms has been studied for the wireless sensor networks. Some of the current research work cannot fully resolve the unreachability problem, while there exists other schemes that can guarantee the delivery of packets with the excessive consumption of control overheads. Moreover, the hop count reduction (HCR) scheme is employed as a short-cutting technique to reduce the routing hops by listening to the neighbor’s traffic, while the intersection navigation (IN) mechanism initiates to obtain the best rolling direction for boundary traversal with the adoption of shortest path criterion. In order to maintain the network requirement of the propound RUT (Resource Utilization Time )scheme under the non-UDG(Unit Disk Graph) networks, the partial UDG construction (PUC) mechanism is proposed to transform the non-UDG into UDG setting for a portion of nodes that facilitate boundary traversal. These three schemes are integrated within the GAR protocol to further enhance the routing performance with reduced communication overhead. The proofs of correctness for the GAR scheme are also given in this paper.
In this industrial world, recycling material plays an important role to preserve natural sources. The main focus of this research is to study the strength of paver block using waste industrial materials. Metal foundries use large amounts of molding sand for casting process. Foundries successfully recycle and reuse those sand many times. The foundry sand is removed from foundry when the sand can be no longer reused. Foundry sand can be used in concrete to improve its strength and other durability factors. Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is the pozzolanic waste generated from Rice milling Industries. Blending of a large amount of RHA is being done in large extents in the manufacture of cement and cementitious products. This paper deals with the study of strength and durability characteristics of RHA and WFS replaced paver block. Cement concrete cubes were casted to determine the optimum percentage replacement of cement and fine aggregate with RHA and WFS. Optimum results were found for the replacement of 15% RHA with total mass of cement and 20% WFS with total mass of fine aggregate. From the obtained optimum results, paver blocks were casted with 15% cement replacement with RHA and 20% sand replacement with WFS. Tests were performed for water absorption test, flexural strength, impact test, abrasion resistant test, compressive strength and split tensile strength for replacement levels of rice husk ash and waste foundry sand at different curing periods (28-days & 60-days). Test results shows increase in strength and durability performance of the paver blocks. From the test results it can be concluded that Manufacturing of bricks and paver blocks using combination Rice Husk Ash and Waste Foundry Sand is feasible and economical.
Day by day depletion of liquid fossil fuels creates necessity to find out an alternative liquid fuel like biodiesel. This paper deals with the production of methyl esters from Yellow Oleander oil, Custard Apple oil and Butea monosperma oil by transesterification process using heterogeneous catalyst and methanol as the alcohol. The important properties of Methyl esters such as cloud point, pour point, ash content and carbon residue are tested and compared with other biodiesels. Methyl esters are blended with diesel in different proportions and testing the physicochemical properties such as viscosity, flash point and density for each blended biodiesel.
This research analysised the corrective waste tyre technologies as well as use for energy and material recovery. To address the emergent waste tyre trouble the Waste minimization and utilization technologies are used. Waste tyres cause a range of environmental and health disputes as they are bulkiness and non-degradable. For this pyrolysis, gasification and liquefaction (PGL) processes are the probable solution to tackle these problems. In this paper the process conditions and potential products for each process are discussed. An ecological impact consideration of PGL processes and probable corrective solutions are also presented. PGL processes have enormous possible for commerce. Though the achievement of every process depends on some financial and ecological factors such as resources and working costs, supply accessibility, permitting process and discharge from these operations.
Home automation is quite common in developed nations. In smart home automation technique with Raspberry Pi using IoT and it is done by integrating cameras and sensor into a web application and automation plays an important role in the world economy and in daily life. Raspberry Pi operates and controls sensors and video cameras for sensing and surveillance then relay circuit is used to avoid gas leakage in our home. In proposed system an IOT based home automation system using raspberry pi that automates home appliances. When Person has arrived the camera capture image then the door is automatically open after getting the confirmation from the user through IoT. Thus we automate home appliances over the internet using a raspberry pi. Different login is used to control our home through IoT. The first login is used to control and monitor our whole home from anywhere. The second login is used to control the particular chamber in our house .whenever custodian isn't arrived at home. some person come to our home the custodian can check he is a right person and enter login id password to open the door. The person can access only certain chamber of that house. The third login is used to control the gas leakage in our house. When gas leakage detected and it is turned off using solenoid valve.
An investigation aimed at determining the importance of Carbon percentage in the microstructure development of Dual Phase steel is carried out by intercritically annealing the different samples of low carbon steels which consists of different percentage of carbon (0.16%, 0.18%, 0.20%). The samples are heated in muffle furnace to above Ac3 temperature (920oC), soaked the sample for 30 min and quenched in Ice brine solution to get complete martensitic structure. Later the samples are inter critically annealed at 740oC, 760oC, 780oC, 800oC, 820oC (between Ac1 and Ac3) for 60 minutes and quenched in oil at room temperature. Microstructure examination revealed that steel containing 0.18% C yields a better microstructure which consists of around 46% Martensite and remaining Ferrite and minute amount of retained Austinite, which is a good combination of Strength and toughness. The uniaxial tensile test results shown that at Specimen containing 0.18%C with 46% Martensite content yielded maximum Tensile strength with comparatively higher toughness Microhardness test shows that hardness increases with increasing in Carbon percentage and has higher values at 0.18%C.
This paper describes about the controlling techniques of Level process. Here the control strategy includes the tuning of PID controller using some of the Traditional methods of tuning and the intelligent methods like Genetic Algorithm (GA). Genetic Algorithm is one of the Evolutionary Algorithm which is derived from the searching process simulates the natural evolution of Biological creatures. With this technique, the controlling of complex process will also be easy. Then the time domain specifications and performance index of Traditional and intelligent methods have been compared using MATLAB.
The effects of system and operating parameters are investigated. The investigation of the effects of system and operating parameters on the performance of salt gradient solar pond based on the analysis of governing equation of salt gradient solar pond, considering the boundary conditions at the surfaces between the zones. The results obtained by simulation using the computer program C++. The effects of system and operating parameters of the SGSP like depth of different zones, temperature distribution, heat extraction rate, heat capacity rate and efficiency have been developed. It has been found that the temperature distribution in the GSPP.
Cu-Al-Be Ternary alloys are prepared by ingot metallurgy route, which exhibits parent phase or Austenite phase at high temperature and Martensite phase at low temperature and also exhibits shape memory effect upon quenching to lower temperature. The Cu-Al-Be SMA was in the range of 10-12wt% of Al and 0.4-0.5 wt% of Be is chosen for present study and different amount of quaternary element is added to the ternary alloy. The variation in shape memory effect, transformation temperature and microstructure is studied by using bend test, differential scanning calorimeter and Optical microscope.
Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) are potential light weight engineering materials with excellent properties. The present investigation aims to evaluate the properties of red mud particulate reinforced with aluminium 6061 metal matrix composites. Red mud particulates in different weight fractions are under dry condition. Composites are prepared by Stir casting method. The main objective of this study is to develop red mud reinforced aluminum composites using stir casting and the powder metallurgy process. Red mud is a material which is obtained as industrial waste during the production of alumina by Bayer’s process. Red mud could be used as reinforcement for the production of aluminum composites. Using varying wt. % of reinforcement, the aluminium composites are fabricated by stir casting method. Due to technological advancements, it is possible to use Nano sized reinforcement in Al matrix. Nano sized reinforcements enhance the properties of Al matrix compared to micro sized reinforcements. With increasing volume fraction, more loads are transferred to the reinforcement which results in a higher yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and bending force and ductility to the Al-alloy/Red mud composites. This project is focused on overview of development in the field of Al based metal matrix with Nano aluminium based composites.
The influences of Fe-addition on phase transformation behavior, mechanical properties and microstructure of Ti50Ni50-xFex alloys were investigated by means of optical microscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results indicate that, as a substitute for Ni, Fe added to TiNi alloys can dramatically decrease the martensite transformation temperature and R phase transformation and martensite transformation are accordingly separated. The results show that TiNiFe alloys exhibit two-step martensitic transformation. The start temperature of martensitic transformation increases sharply from 245 K to 267 K when 4 % Fe is added in, and then decreases gradually if Fe content further increases. The hardness of TiNiFe ternary alloys before heat treatment is constant for up to 4% of the composition and suddenly increases for 8% composition and also it behaves same for heat treated specimens because of formation of equilibrium precipitates Ni3Ti formation.