Considering the recycling approach, a study was conducted to investigate the combined use of mussel shell powder and glass powder as a material for partial replacement of cement. The effect of addition of the glass powder and mussel shell powder on the properties of concrete was studied. Destructive and non-destructive tests were conducted to determine the fresh and hardened properties of concrete. The combined replacement ratio of mussel shell powder and glass powder was 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%. In this study, the concrete specimens prepared with 20% replacement of cement by mussel shell powder and glass powder shows better performance with respect to its mechanical and durability properties.
Salient structure detection in an image is required by many applications such as image re-targeting, automatic cropping, object tracking, video encoding, and selective sharpening etc. Salient areas are generally regarded as areas which human eye will typically focus on, and finding these areas is the main step for object identification. That is image segmentation is the key process in saliency detection. In computer vision applications, image segmentation is the process of partioning a digital image into multiple segments, sets of pixels known as super-pixels. The proposed method uses Hidden Markov Random Field (HMRF) model for image segmentation. The main advantage of using this is instead of normal segmentation output, we get a relative depth wise segmentation output. The image is segmented into different clusters by using k-means clustering algorithm and it is modelled by a Gaussian mixture model.
Most significant issue in lung cancer treatment is early detection of pulmonary nodules. Most of the times, detection of nodules are confused with blood vessels and more false positives are obtained. Hence there is a need of detection of nodules and end on blood vessels separately. This problem is addressed in this paper. From CT scan images suspected regions are identified using segmentation. Classifiers are used to classify nodules. In this paper two segmentation techniques: Thresholding and Region growing along with three classifiers SVM, ANN, CNN are presented and the performance comparison of each segmentation technique along with a classifier is given.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a multicarrier modulation technique. It is widely used in various wireless communication systems because its high rate data transmission and better spectral efficiency. But major disadvantage of OFDM system is high Peak –To –Average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signals, which makes large dynamic range of the power amplifier and digital to analog converters during the transmission and reception of the signals. OFDM consist of many number of individual subcarriers, as a result of which the amplitude or peak of such a signal can have a high peak values. As a result, the total cost of the transceiver increases with reduced efficiency and interference between the carriers are increases. Hence Selective mapping (SLM) method is used to reduce PAPR, in this method input individual data sequence are multiplied by each of the phase sequences. The each rows of the normalized Riemann matrix are used as phase sequence set for PAPR reduction. Finally select the signals corresponding to the lowest PAPR .Due to high PAPR orthogonal character of subcarriers are losses .It makes high interference to carrier ratio (ICR).
In this research paper we describe about the future mission of NASA in exciting robots for research purpose in the Martian planet commonly termed as 2020 mission of NASA.Here let us discuss about the assumed new version of OSI layer there to be discussed with the new methodology,in which it tells about the new way of data transfer as well as the extraction of processed data or information among the robots which share some equidistant apart.Here we discuss about the equidistant robots in the martian planet acts as a network node each communicates with respect to that of IEEE standards such as WiFi,Zigbee,etc…But while considering the electromagnetc waves based on the gravity of the new Martian planet assumed that some data bits could be lost or due to the catastrophic effects such as Martan dust-storms.So to overcome that security measures as well as error reduction technique such as CRC could be used with SSL-64 bit encryption as all satisfies expected outcome for robot communication is established in a secure and error reduced way
This paper proposes a hybrid static synchronous compensator (hybrid-STATCOM) in a three-phase power transmission system that has a broad compensation range and low dc-link voltage. In this paper, the circuit configuration of traditional and capacitive STATCOM are introduced first. The system parameter design for the hybrid STATCOM is then proposed on the basis of consideration of the reactive power compensation range. Because of the low dc-link voltage, the system costs can be reduced considerably. Finally, simulation is carried out in MATLAB to verify the wide compensation range and low dc-link voltage characteristics and the good dynamic performance of the proposed hybrid-STATCOM.
In the theory of Control Systems, a technique named Backstepping Control was introduced by Petar V. Kokotovic in 1990. Stabilizing controls are being designednfor a particular set of nonlinear systems which are dynamical in nature. These systems derived from subsystems are given out from a subsystem which is irreducible in nature and which are possible to be stabilized using even other methods. There will be a known stable system and Backstepping Control has a recursive structure because of which design process can be started by the designer at this system which is stable and 'back out" controllers which are new and the outer subsystems are being stabilized by these controllers in stages. The process runs until it obtains the external control which is final. The Maximum power obtained from the MPPT tracking in a PV based system is tracked using a new control method which is nonlinear, Backstepping Control. The DC-AC converter controls the inverter input voltage and supples a telecommunication load and injects or absorbs UPF ac current from the grid which is sinusoidal in nature. The Backstepping Control is completely Lyapunov function based which ensurea the system's stability and robustness. Better results will be obtained since a recursive methodology is being applied in this control to model direct dynamics. The system comprises of PV generator, Buck Boost Converter and DC AC inverter interfaced to grid network. The duty ratio of Buck Boost Converter is being controlled to control the system and thus the input voltage of Buck Boost Converter is being set to a voltage which gives maximum power output. Numerical simulations in Matlab/Simulink are used to analyze the performance of the system.
A micro-grid which could be regarded as a small electric power system that includes a plurality of distributed generation (DG) units and local loads. The micro-grid (MG) can operate in either grid-connected mode carrying out flexible power exchange or in islanded mode wherein the MG is isolated from the main network, and aims to achieve a stable power balance between local loads and DG units. For a short-circuit fault like a three phase fault that happens inside the MG system irrespective of the mode of operation, parts of DG units may not be able to meet the fault ride through (FRT) requirements, and will be forced to disconnect from the rest of the system. With the relay protection scheme being different for the two modes of operation and the need to improve stability in service and the reliability in operation of DG and MG, a feasible solution to deal with the fault and that which works efficiently with the protective relays employed in the system becomes necessary. A modified flux coupling type superconducting fault current limiter (FC-SFCL) could be considered as one of the best methods to solve the problems related to a short-circuit fault. For an SFCL that is installed at the integration point of one or more than one DG unit, it not only improves the DG voltage but also limits the fault current contributed by the DG unit for any fault that happens in the system. The FRT capability achievement may be regarded as an extended operational capability of SFCL. The protection system uses directional over-current protection and differential protection for providing protection against the short circuit fault that happens inside the system, when it operates either in grid-connected mode and islanded mode respectively. Taking into account the impact of SFCL on the protection coordination and the sensitivity of the relays to the reduction of fault currents, the above mentioned protective schemes are put to use.
In this developing stage of our nation, spreading of obscene images has become a major issue among the teenagers. There are certain techniques to avoid online obscene images and videos. There is a major possibility to transfer such images via external devices. This paper says about how to avoid the transfer of obscene images via external devices. When an external device is connected to the system and if the method detects obscene image the system will automatically rejects the external device. The detection of obscene images is done in three steps which includes skin color detection, face detection and a fine detection using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). The method results in 98.425% of accuracy
As population density is increasing yearly, construction of tall buildings along with proper design against the lateral load is adopted. Now day’s earthquakes are frequently acquiring in the world so construction of earthquake resistant buildings is more focused. In earthquake resistant buildings shear wall play more important role than other structural elements. In recent years steel plate shear walls (SPSW) are more economical than RCC shear wall in resisting the lateral load such as earthquake loads and wind loads. In this present work Experimental investigation of “Multi-Story frame with and without steel plate shear wall” has been done and different setup of steel plate shear walls is used. The experimental model of G+2 (Aluminum model with standard dimensions) which is prepared is fixed to the shake table. The results so obtained are compared with previous dissertation works for the main parameters such as Displacement, Velocity and Accelerations and also compared the main parameters with different set of SPSW arrangements.