3.4 million people die every year around world due to the water related issues some part of this cause is also because of drinking water stored in an uncleaned overhead tanks . Actually the water storing tanks are made of material which normally open to the atmosphere produce bacterial even though it is not harmful it contaminate water stored in overhead tanks it can be cleaned by a human but an effective cleaning can not be achieved and he may also affected by inhaling the gas out from bacteria produced, According to recent statistics from health organisation storing of water in tanks must be periodically monitored and kept cleaned . Majorly the municipal tanks storing water not even monitored and yearly cleaning is also not undertaken .The above points make reasons for this project.
The design and the manufacture of Internal Combustion (IC) Engines are under significant pressure for improvement. This research work focuses on improving the performance and reducing the emissions for the bio diesel blend by incorporating minor modifications in the engine. It is known that piston-bowl diameter influences the in-cylinder mixing of fuel with air and the pollutant formation processes. The bowl geometry and its dimensions such as the pip region, the bowl lip area and the torus radius are all known to have an effect on the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. The experimental work was carried out in single cylinder, four stroke, compression ignition engine for diesel, J20, J40 & J50 (Jatropha methyl ester) with three different nozzle holes (3,4 & 5). Conclusions were drawn to utilize and improve the percentage of biodiesel blend with minor modifications on the engine.
Investors get opportunity provided by internet to post online opinions. In turn these opinions can be shared with other investors. Posts on Computational linguistics are obtained from online opinions can facilitate in two ways: first for investors’ investment decision making and second is stock companies’ for risk reduction. To conduct this activity of online posts in stock markets a novel sentiment method is developed. In this method analysis of sentiments from online opinions is integrated into machine learning approaches based on techniques like support vector machine and (GARCH).First corpus of opinions will be collected from particular website. Based on the sentiment contained in the opinion data, it will be divided in to three categories like “Positive”, “Negative” and “Neutral”. Analyzing customer review is most important, by doing that we tend to rate the product and provide decisions for it which is been a challenging problem today. Computational results obtained at the end show that the statistical machine learning approach has a higher classification accuracy than that of the semantic approach. It’s decided after analysis that investor sentiment has a particularly strong effect for value stocks relative to growth stocks.
Mobile cloud computing (MCC) has changed the concept of mobile devices from primitive gadget to full computers that accommodate work, personal and mobility needs. MCC is the most promising cloud solution for the future mobile environment. It aims to integrate mobile devices with cloud computing, and provide to mobile users an online access to unlimited cloud resources. This paper introduce a middleware that provides an intelligent behavior for selecting and adapting cloud services according to the current user’s context. Implementation of context-aware algorithm aiming to exploit location and preference cost of mobile user to select the adequate cloud resource.
Metal Matrix Composites have received substantial attention in the recent years due to their potential advantages over monolithic alloys. These materials are commonly reinforced with high strength, high modulus, and brittle ceramic phases, which may be in the form of fiber, whiskers, or particulates. The addition of ceramic reinforcement to a metal matrix improves strength and stiffness, but at the expense of ductility. Further, heat treatment has an intense influence on tribological properties of heat treated aluminum alloys and its composites. This paper describes the application of Taguchi’s orthogonal array approach for optimization of parameters of stir casting technique used to process Aluminum based hybrid matrix composites. The wear behavior of the composite, which is a very important characteristic, has been selected for the analysis. Taguchi’s orthogonal array has been selected considering the various control factors and levels; experimentation has been accordingly carried out and optimum process parameters have been selected. This study has resulted in improved wear properties of Aluminum based hybrid matrix composites.
The building industry have a strong interaction with the global energy and environmental scenarios. Buildings are responsible for more than 40% of global energy consumption and over a third of the total global greenhouse gases emissions. Hot desert regions, like Saudi Arabia, are very challenging in terms of building energy consumption. The role of the housing sector in the country is critical as it accounts for half of the total national electricity consumption. Therefore, it is vital to apply energy conservation principles in this sector. Nevertheless, a systemic investigation of electricity demand is essential to identify areas which need to be focused on in terms of energy conservation. To determine these areas, a hypothetical house is designed, modelled and compared with measured electricity values. Integrated Environmental Solutions Virtual Environment software is employed to simulate the hypothetical house in the five climatic zones of Saudi Arabia that are represented by Dhahran, Guriat, Riyadh, Jeddah and Khamis Mushai. The investigation focuses mainly on the building services systems and envelope systems. The findings reveal that the annual electricity demand for homes in Dhahran, Guriat, Riyadh, Jeddah, and Khamis Mushait is 129 kWh/m², 91 kWh/m², 112 kWh/m², 165 kWh/m², and 60 kWh/m², respectively. It also reveal that the electricity demand mainly comes from heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system, domestic equipment and lights in all models. Domestic hot water observed to be the least demanding parameter in all models. A further investigation reveals that though results may vary from location to location, the important factors in all models are internal gain, solar gain, external conduction gain, and infiltration gain.
The performance of the machine is an important consideration for the productivity of the system. Any machine or system that has less number of failures is preferable and it is of utmost importance. This paper examines and investigates the performance of the machines such as Boiler and Turbine, with an emphasis on the reliability and availability of these components of the Shaliwahana 12MW Municipal Solid Waste Power Plant. These components are subjected number of failures during its life cycle. All the failures of boiler and turbine were taken from four years. Then the trend analysis after that the reliability characteristics of boiler and turbine were estimated.
Bioreduction is the increase and decrease in the valence state of a metal by metabolically active bacteria. Hexavalent chromium present in waste water is found to be toxic in nature which causes mutation and cancer. This waste water was reduced by using two organisms, a biofilm forming bacteria and a non biofilm forming bacteria. The process of reduction was studied by using analytical methods and growth of the organism was optimized by using different temperature and pH for increasing the bioreduction. It was found that biofilm forming bacteria could reduce more effectively than the bacteria which do not form biofilm.
As per the growing demands of wireless there is enormous new technologies participating to make sophisticated environment for an end user. To serve this increasing number and size of wireless communication the German scientist- Harald Hass proposed a “LI-FI technology”. LI-FI provides transmission of data through illumination y sending data through an LED bulb. Light Emitting Diodes(LED s) are used in different areas of everyday life. The advantages of this device is that in addition to their lightning capabilities and now it will be used for communication by sending data through an LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than human can follow. WI-FI is great for general wireless coverage within buildings, whereas LI-FI is ideal for high density wireless data coverage in confined area and relieving radio interference issues.
Crime analysis is one of the most important activities of the majority of the intelligent and law enforcement organizations all over the world. Thus, it seems necessary to study reasons, factors and relations between occurrence of different crimes and finding the most appropriate ways to control and avoid more crimes. A major challenge faced by most of the law enforcement and intelligence organizations is efficiently and accurately analyzing the growing volumes of crime related data. The vast geographical diversity and the complexity of crime patterns have made the analyzing and recording of crime data more difficult. This paper presents an intelligent crime analysis system which is designed to overcome the above mentioned problems. Data mining is used extensively in terms of analysis, investigation and discovery of patterns for occurrence of different crimes. The proposed system is a web-based system which performs crime analysis through news articles. In this paper we use a clustering and classification based model to automatically group the retrieved documents into a list of meaningful categories. The data mining techniques are used to analyze the web data.
The human gait identification has become a important research area in last two decades because of its towering applications. This human movement examination is a computer vision based behavioral biometric feature and belongs to the second generation biometrics. It does not require subject approval and hence can be captured from distance without the subject knowledge. Human movement examination involves methods for acquiring human gait, processing it, analyzing and understanding human motion/ action / emotion / behavior and validating it.The paper highlights numerous methods found in literature for model free and model based human motion analysis. Unlike previous survey papers the articles main emphasize is on the challenges posed by the covariate factors like different cloths, loading effect on subject and other factors like walking speed effects and their effects on the analysis. The article also gives the research background and current progress of gait analysis. In the last section the success rate and failure rate of many novel approaches by many authors are discussed.
The paper De-Noising of Images corrupted in presence of multiple noises via offline dictionary, deals with problem of image restoration which is continuously affected by Impulse Noise (IN) or / and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) which are commonly occurring noises.The paper envisage implementation of the method to remove mixed noise which commonly occurs in signal processing such as AWGN and IN (AWGN+SPIN, AWGN+SPIN+RVIN). The method includes detection based method, which first detects the noise in the pixel of image then removes mixed noise. Hence such method create more artifacts when mixed noise is too strong. Here soft impulse pixel detection is used via weighted encoding which removes IN and AWGN simultaneously. In this paper Adaptive Median Filter is also used to remove IN with less effort.
This experiment deals with the study of mixing characteristic of supersonic flow through a convergent divergent nozzle with secondary injection of different angles and various pressure by measuring the total pressure along the nozzle jet axis until it reaches the atmospheric pressure. The primary jet was supersonic and the secondary jet (co flow) is highly sonic. Now-a-days the effect of mixing of fuel and air mixture in the combustion chamber of the scramjet engine is quite interesting problem in the field of propulsion. This is because of the supersonic flow in the combustion chamber of the scramjet engine. Hence the requirement of immediate mixing of fuel and air mixture in the combustion chamber is important .This problem can be slightly solved by injecting the fuel in various angles with various proportion of pressure with respect to primary supersonic flow through the nozzle. Hence while analyzing the data got from this experiment it is understood that the time and distance taken for the proper mixing or decaying of secondary injected sonic flow and primary supersonic flow with atmospheric pressure along the jet axis is less compared to non secondary injected and secondary injection which is parallel to the flow.
An artistic representation of a Turing machine. Turing machines are frequently used as theoretical models for computing. In theoretical computer science and mathematics, the theory of computation is the branch that deals with how efficiently problems can be solved on a model of computation, using an algorithm. The theory of computation has much application functioning in "real time" such as a working computer machine, the compliers in computers, scanners for scanning etc and all. In this research paper our main focus was on three topics, primitive recursive functions, halting problem and primitive recursive.
‘’CARDLESS and CASHLESS” tollgates are the major objective of our paper. The major problems which people are facing in toll gates are unnecessary waiting time, it is estimated that almost 15 crore vehicle uses NHAI in India and if average idle time of each vehicle will be 5-10 minutes. The other problems faced are chaos caused due to exact change in money, wastage of man power. Our paper is a simple and innovative idea to overcome all the above mentioned problems .Our concept emphasis on two aspects. First, we have tried in reducing the unnecessary waiting time in tollgates and secondly we have concentrated in moving towards cashless transaction (E-transaction). To achieve the mentioned objective we have used simple digital image processing programing. Followed by a database, GPS. The other component used will be a High resolution cameras and a mobile application software to create a platform to link with all the components and interact with the user. In our concept, every car’s number is linked with corresponding two or three mobile number for e-wallet or for online transaction. These information will be maintained in a database. Before starting the journey the user should set the current location and destination in the mobile application. By using the GPS it shows the number of tolls in between destination and current location and the user should select whether the journey is single or double. Based on the user choice the database gets updated. Each phone number in database will be linked with their respective bank accounts. When a car is nearing to the toll gate at 500 metre before the toll, a camera will be placed. It takes the car number as input and by image processing it is converted into digital data and it checks for the number in database and checks for journey details and bank account. There may be two cases. CASE 1: If any of the above is not specified, like journey detail is not provided or bank balance is less, it gives an alert message in a LED sign board at 500 meter before toll gate showing the car number to take leftmost lane for manual cash transaction. CASE 2: If all the information are specified and when car moves near toll gate the other camera present near toll gate will recognizes the car and corresponding toll gate amount will be taken from the bank account of the particular phone number which is linked with car and the barrier opens automatically. So in case 2 the car driver doesn’t have to stop the car in toll gates. Since there is no need of unnecessary waiting time the travel time will be reduced and above mentioned problems like exact change in money, wastage of human power can be solved. In this paper we have tried to cover all most all possible cases. Each case will have a different solutions.
The analysis is done in the heat pipe with the new installation of an active and passive technique. The heat transfer rate have been improved under the working state with the working fluid of ammonia in aluminium heat pipe. The operating temperature is maintained below 80⁰C as a moderate level, so that the pressure loss can be neglected. The experiments were conducted with rotation active technique and stand still conditions of inserts passive technique. From the experimental observation the results were plotted and the improvement in heat transfer due to the rotation of heat pipe is justified and discussed.
we people see lots of disabled people in our day to day life, so we have developed the magnetic tricycle especially for handicapped person. Magnetic tricycle will help to reduce the fatigue of the handicapped person. All the design specification considered after analysing the problems based on the handicapped person. The comfort of the person in the tricycle is an important factor and we have given importance to it. The main content of the tricycle is a pair magnets and brake systems. This project will able to help the patients and physically handicapped people in such a way that user friendly type. Moreover it will increase the confidence level of the disabled persons. In short, our project is society centred concept for all under medical care.
The present work investigates the machining characteristics of Plastic Mould steel with Copper as a tool electrode in electrical discharge machining process. Comparison of physical mechanical, and thermal properties of steel (P-20, H-13 and STAVAX) which are specifically used in plastic mould. Electrical discharge machining using copper electrode is carried out for all the three materials. A well-designed experimental scheme was used to reduce the total number of Experiments. Parts of the experiment were conducted with the L9 Orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratios Associated with the observed values in the experiments were determined by which factor is most affected by the Responses of Material Removal Rate (MRR), Surface Roughness (SR). Our aim is to optimize the control factors Peak current Ip, pulse ON-time Ton, Gap voltage v. for all three materials which are frequently used in tool room for making of Plastic mould. The three different types of material are P-20, H13, and Stavax that are used according to the need. To overcome the problem of which parameters to be kept for these three different type of steels. Firstly we have conducted o-vat for screening of range of Factors by using Taguchi l-9 experimental method optimization has to be carried out.
Brick is building material used to build walls, paving materials and other components in masonry construction. In this study, Production of Quality Bricks with Granite Waste Additions in Unsuitable Brick soil is prepared with different proportions of Granite Waste addition in Unsuitable soil sample. The ingredients used in the preparation of bricks are unsuitable soil and Granite waste powder. The different proportions of granite waste addition in unsuitable brick soils are 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% & 50%. Using Granite waste in Unsuitable soil, bricks are casted, fired in high temperature and cured in the chamber. In this study, primarily the tests are done as per the Indian standards are Compressive strength, Water Absorption test, Efflorescence of bricks, Hardness test, Bulk Density, Size, Shape and color, Soundness and Structure test. This thesis presents a detailed experimental study on Compressive strength, Water absorption and efflorescence of bricks. Hardness, Bulk density, Size, Shape & Color, Soundness and Structure is also studied and reported in detail. The values are determined and compared with different proportions of Granite waste additions in unsuitable soil.
Concrete sustainability involves continuously choosing low impact building materials. River sand was effectively used as fine aggregate in concrete, but because of improvement in construction industry there is shortage in natural sand and there is need to search for alternative. The experimental study has been carried out to investigate whether Granite dust and Marble Sludge Powder suitable as fine aggregate. Properties of concrete with mixture of both Granite dust and Marble sludge Powder as fine aggregate is also checked. For the study eight series of concrete mixtures were studied with different proportion of Granite dust and Marble sludge powder mix. Mechanical properties of marble sludge powder are reported with that of sand. The effect of Granite dust and Marble sludge powder on the compressive strength and split tensile strength were recorded at the curing age of 3,7,14,28 and 56 days. All the data were tabulated and compared. It was observed that marble sludge powder and Granite dust mix of particular proportions displaced enhancing effect on strength.
The Internet of Things (IoT), sometimes referred to as the Internet of Objects, will change everything including ourselves. This may seem like a bold statement, but consider the impact the Internet already has had on education, communication, business, science, government, and humanity. Clearly, the Internet is one of the most important and powerful creations in all of human history. Now consider that IoT represents the next evolution of the Internet, taking a huge leap in its ability to gather, analyze, and distribute data that we can turn into information, knowledge, and, ultimately, wisdom. In this context, IoT becomes immensely important. Already, IoT projects are under way that promise to close the gap between poor and rich, improve distribution of the world’s resources to those who need them most, and help us understand our planet so we can be more proactive and less reactive. Even so, several barriers exist that threaten to slow IoT development, including the transition to IPv6, having a common set of standards, and developing energy sources for millions even billions of minute sensors. However, as businesses, governments, standards bodies, and academia work together to solve these challenges, IoT will continue to progress. The goal of this paper, therefore, is to educate you in plain and simple terms so you can be well versed in IoT.
Compressed sensing is a recent perspective for acquisition and reconstruction of sparse signals that allow sampling rate notably below the classical Nyquist rate. This paper proposes a compressed sensing based approach for ECG signal compression with aim of low energy consumption and low sampling rate in wireless body area network (WBAN). The WBANs collect and transfer the biomedical data by using various biomedical wireless sensors attached in or on the human body for health monitoring, biofeedback and ambient assisted living. New and low sampling theory based on compressed sensing (CS) theory to WBANs with ECG biomedical signal. The ECG signal is selected as a sample signal for our analysis. The reason for selecting ECG signal as a sample is that ECG signals usually have a repetitive pattern they can be compressed and there is a need to explore compressed sensing for ECG signals. The Simulation results show that compressed sensing for ECG compression.
Recently, many researches and industries are developing smart home applications. In a smart home , electric devices (e.g., plugs, lights, TV and so on)can have the capability of wireless communications. Users are allowed to control these devices by smart phones through wireless links. However, we observe that the current control schemes are not user friendly. More specifically, users need to switch between APPs to control different kinds of controllable devices or need to transverse a long device list to find the target one. In these paper, we propose schemes to achieve the control fashion that when a user raises her smart phone to point to a devices, the phone’s screen automatically pops out on the control panel of the device, and then the user can enter control commands directly. In this paper, we evaluate the proposed schemes by simulations and real implementation and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our design.
Chemical processes present have many challenging control problems due to various significant features like non-linear dynamic behavior, uncertainty and time varying parameters and so on. Our interest is built around the non-linearity of systems. Because of the inherent non-linearity, most of the chemical process industries are in need of traditional/standard control techniques. The fluid level control problem is commonly associated with storage tanks and blending & reaction vessels in the process industries. Control of process parameters is one of the important problems in process industry. The process considered for modelling is spherical tank liquid level system. Control of liquid level in a spherical tank is nonlinear due to the variation in the area of cross section of the level system with change in shape. System identification of this nonlinear process is done using black box model, which is identified to be nonlinear and approximated to be a First Order Plus Dead Time (FOPDT) model. The controller is designed with the PID based level controller to control the fluid level in spherical tank. Few standard tuning methods like Liptak tuning method, Parr tuning method, Borresen and Grindal tuning method, Camacho tuning method and Tan tuning method have been done and the performance are compared based on ISE (Integral Square Error),IAE (Integral Absolute Error), maximum peak overshoot (Mp) and settling time (ts). The best tuning method is determined using simulation and implemented to tune the controller so that the better performance can be obtained in real time process tank. The real time implementation of the process is designed and implemented in MATLAB software tool using V-MAT data acquisition module. All these are carried out for the particular operating region of the process tank.
One of the most popular emerging technology is cloud computing which satisfies various technical competencies. Cloud environment is basically used for resource sharing and now – a –day’s security threats and data confidentiality are most targeted issues in the cloud environment. In the cloud environment certain members can able to form a group and access the information by sharing. To ensure shared data, integrity can be verified publicly, users in the group need to compute signatures on all the blocks in shared data. Different blocks in Shared data are generally signed by different users due to data modifications performed by different users. For security reasons, once a user is revoked from the group, the blocks which were previously signed by this revoked user must be re-signed by an existing user. The straight forward method, which allows an existing user to download the corresponding part of shared data and re-sign it during user revocation, is inefficient due to the large size of shared data in the cloud. In this, a novel public auditing mechanism is proposed for the integrity of shared data with efficient user revocation in mind. By utilizing the idea of proxy re-signatures, we allow the cloud tore-sign blocks on behalf of existing users during user revocation, so that existing users do not need to download and re-sign blocks by themselves. In addition, a public verifier is always able to audit the integrity of shared data without retrieving the entire data from the cloud, even if some part of shared data has been re-signed by the cloud. Moreover, our mechanism is able to support batch auditing by verifying multiple auditing tasks simultaneously. This mechanism can significantly increase the efficiency of user revocation. Cloud data can be efficiently shared among the public verifier and a large number of users are able to handle a large number of reviewing tasks simultaneously and efficiently.
Electric motor or the hybrid electric vehicle of switched reluctance motor has the wide torque and speed range. Due to the flux strengthening and magnetic saturation, double salient structure causes the high range of torque ripple, mechanical vibration and acoustic noise. This severe can be overcome by using different control techniques like conventional PI control which are efficiency and cost effective. The control of torque ripple by using both controller techniques are simulated by using Matlab/Simulink and the outcome of mechanical vibration and acoustic noise from both the controller gets analyzed in Graphical programming language, LabVIEW tool. This graphical language gives the efficient and accurate results in terms of mechanical vibration and acoustic noise.
Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) is a novel purposeful material and has found increasing applications in many areas. Nickel-titanium alloys are largely used SMAs. Recently, research efforts have been extended to use SMA for the management of civil structures. SMAs exhibit unique characteristics, most importantly, recovery of large dead deformations upon unloading or heating counting on the crystal structure of the metal. As a result, SMAs are extensively studied and enforced for varied applications. Nickel-Titanium alloy is widely for its superior mechanical and thermal performance over completely different compositions. The shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity, two major properties of SMA associated with the thermal-induced or stress-induced reversible hysteretic section transformation between austenite and primary solid solution, are reviewed. In this paper the response of Simply Supported reinforced concrete beams with smart rebars in static loading has been studied numerically, using Finite element technique.
The latest development in the field of Nanotechnology is newly developed heat transfer fluids called as Nano fluids. Nano fluid is just the mixture of nano sized particles dispersed and stably suspended in the conventional heat transfer fluids. The various scientific experiments conducted in the past showed that when very small amount of nanoparticles suspended in the conventional fluid has the potential to enhance the thermo physical, transport and radiative properties of the conventional fluid to the maximum extent. Cutting fluid is the form of a liquid, are supplied to the chip removing zone in order to improve the better cutting conditions. The major role of cutting oil is maintain a perfect protective film in that place of the area between the tool tip and the work piece being cut where hydrodynamic conditions can exist. Such a film assists the chip in sliding readily over the tool. Besides reducing heat, proper lubrication lowers power requirements and reduces the rate of tool wear, particularly in machining tough, ductile metals. In This paper introducing nano fluid using as a coolant in CNC machine, it’s increasing the machining condition and it is reducing the production time and considered the cutting condition and analyzed surface roughness of the material like high carbon high chromium.
Direct pouring system is an existing method in Casting. In that method, for pouring the liquid metal inside the cavity the exothermic sleeve are replace both as sprue, runner and also riser in the other end where the metal overflows. These exothermic sleeve were made of paper wool and it can be used only once. Therefore, we replaces the paper wool with the ceramic fiber to reduce the replacement at every time of pouring.
Cylindrical grinding machining is the most popular machining process of removing metal from a work piece surface in the form of tiny chips by the action of irregularly shaped abrasive particles. It has wide range of applications like automobile, aircraft, and marine industries. Precision and quality have been the critical issues for all these industries. To enhance the quality of machined parts, and to reduce the machining costs and to increase the production rate, it is very important to select the optimal machining parameters. The success of any grinding operation depends upon the proper selection of various operating conditions like work speed, feed rate, depth of cut etc. Optimization of grinding process still remains one of the most challenging problems because of its high complexity and non-linearity while solving it. This research aims to optimize and analyze cylindrical grinding process on Inconel 718. It has High tensile strength and hardness, high thermal resistance and low machinability. It is emerging in the fields like aerospace, petroleum and nuclear industries. Thus optimizing cylindrical grinding process for this material may reduce production cost in industries. In the present study, L-9 orthogonal array is formed based on Taguchi Design of Experiments and it is used to optimize the effect of cylindrical grinding parameters on the surface roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR). For all the three levels of input values main effect plot and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio are obtained. The results of the analysis are evaluated to find the optimum input values for high surface finish with maximum MRR.
In any spacecraft mission, structure is the primary load bearing member. Most of the spacecraft structures are cuboidal in shape with a central cylinder and ring that interface with launch vehicle. This central cylinder plays an important role in satisfying overall stiffness and strength requirement of satellite structure, which undergoes various loads during launching and in orbit conditions. Most popular and efficient among cylinder construction is CFRP face-skin sandwiched with Aluminum Honeycomb Core. Cylinder construction using these structures is mainly developed with OX core to get the curved shape, as normal core suffers anticlastic curvature while bending which makes them unsuitable for the cylinder construction. In order to satisfy various stiffness requirements for different missions with the launch vehicle interface geometry constraint, it is not always possible to change the diameter of the cylinder to increase the stiffness. Next efficient alternative is to increase the core thickness to improve stiffness. But manufacturing cylinder honeycomb core with higher thickness is difficult even with the OX core because of anticlastic effects. Thus new design modification for improving the cylinder stiffness is done by inserting the higher thickness core into thin gridded CFRP cylinder which enhances the efficiency. In this paper trade off studies on dynamic and strength characteristics of typical spacecraft structure using this cylinder are studied. Stiffness characteristics are verified for the modified cylinder with that of launch vehicle stiffness constraints. The effect of modified cylinder on the dynamic characteristic of satellite structure is studied using Finite element modeling and analysis.
The proposed system attempts to sow seed in the field without engine and sowing system. The material used contains less carbon and is less expensive; being of softer metal it is easily welded. The main objective of sowing operation is to put seed and fertilizer in row at desired polluting the environment. Mild steel is used as the material for the fabrication of seed depth. It also reduces human power and controls pollution .The mechanism used in this fabrication are chain and sprocket mechanism which is used to transmit power. In current scenario due to heavy weight of trackers soil erosion is taking place this model could be a good alternative. This developed model is economical with good accuracy. This proposed model is accurate and could be deployed in real time environment.
Self compacting concrete is a type of concrete which flows under the influence of gravity without segregation is used in heavily reinforced structural members. It avoids the need of vibration equipment. Steel fibres can improve crack resistance, impact and fatigue resistance, shrinkage reduction and toughness. This project explores the strength studies of self- compacting concrete using steel fibres as reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties. Various tests are to be carried out to determine the properties of fresh and hardened concrete such as workability test, compressive test, flexure and tensile test. The mix design for SCC was arrived as per the guidelines of EFNARC
Casting is the significance of heat transfer by a substance during change of phase evolution. Most of the casting design consists of gating and riser system. It has a direct influence on the quality of casting. During the solidification process, the casting defects like shrinkage, porosity and hot tears are affect the final product. To avoid and eliminate these defects by standard casting riser and gating system design is essential. As per chvorinov's rule, the volume of riser should be greater than mould cavity. In this work, 3D model of riser is designed by using Creo software and ANSYS are used to analysis and optimize the framework. The first step is to evaluate castability of the design and the model of part design is converted into a casting model. Parametric representation of the riser is to be carried out and various parameters are to be changed to generate Creo models in ANSYS. The optimization of parameters is to be carried out by varying the riser design parameters to improve the casting quality in sand casting process. The actual riser design can be defined by optimization techniques and the important parameters like height and diameters of riser can be analyzed and proposed to sand casting process.
Concrete is a relatively brittle material, when subjected to normal stresses and impact loads. As a result for these characteristics, plain concrete members could not support loads and tensile stresses that occurred, on concrete beams and slabs. Concrete members are reinforced with continuous reinforcing bars to withstand tensile stresses and compensate for the lack of ductility and strength. The addition of steel reinforcement significantly increases the strength of concrete, and results in concrete with homogenous tensile properties; however the development of micro cracks in concrete structures must be checked. The introduction of fibers is generally taken as a solution to develop concrete in view of enhancing its flexural and tensile strength. M40 grade of concrete are arrived with the following ingredients such as Cement, Fine aggregate, Coarse aggregate, Water, Steel fibre, Fly ash, Silica fumes and Superplasticizers. Then variables in this study include the steel fiber (Hooked end and crimpled) percentage in addition to the weight of cement. The Compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural behavior of steel fiber reinforced concrete beam with the varying percentage of fiber of M40 grade of concrete.
The dissimilar metal joints of have been emerged as a structural material for various industrial applications which provides good combination of mechanical properties like strength, corrosion resistance with lower cost. Selections of joining process for such a material are difficult because of their physical and chemical properties. The stainless steel and mild steel dissimilar material joints are very common structural applications joining of stainless steel and mild steel is very critical because of carbon precipitation and loss of chromium leads to increase in porosity affects the quality of joint leads deteriorate strength. Gas tungsten arc welding is a fusion welding process having wide applications in industry. In this process proper selection of input welding parameters is necessary in order to control weld distortion and subsequently increase the productivity of the process. In order to obtain a good quality weld and control weld distortion, it is therefore, necessary to control the input welding parameters. In this research work, experiments has to be carried out on SS410 stainless steel of 3 mm thick using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process. The research will be applied Taguchi Method on an austenitic stainless steel specimen of dimensions 50 × 50 × 10 mm, which have following interested parameters: various arc current arc voltage and inert gas pressure. The main objective of the experimental factors affecting to mechanical property of SS410 with semi automatic Gas Metal Arc Welding(GMAW) through various welding parameters.
In recent years air guns have become popular among the people for hunting and other outdoor games. Air guns represent the oldest pneumatic technology. In this project, it is planned to build up a new model motor powered air machine gun, as the existing air gun is usually single targeted and single triggered, once it is shot, the probability of hitting the target is meager and the next shot is possible only after few seconds of reloading. These issues are considered as a problem statement in this project because the mobile target will escape, if the first shot is missed. The proposed air machine gun can be used for multiple shots. This will give additional advantage while hunting, as multiple bullets can be triggered simultaneously or individually depending on the target either with more power or with accuracy. Considering the latter, if the target escapes from the first shot, the next pellet can be immediately shot to hit the target without reloading. On the other hand, machine guns that are used in defense are powered with fire powder that can cause huge air pollution at the time of war. The proposed air machine gun will cause no pollution to the environment. The main challenge now is the weight of the gun as electric motor is fitted to the gun and the power of the drive. This problem makes the gun semi portable as power source is required, where the gun is to be used.